Business and Commercial Law

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Daniel Pallaras

BCom Acct (Hons), LLB (Hons) DipLang, MAppFin

Daniel is the founder of Modern Education. In 2014 Daniel wrote the law component of the Masters subject, Commercial Law & Accounting Information Systems (M), at the University of Adelaide. Daniel's anonymous student evaluations for teaching this course were amongst the highest in the faculty. Earlier in 2014 Daniel passed the 18 hour California bar exam, using only a mobile app to study.

From 2010 to 2014 Daniel practised in corporate fundraising and takeovers as a solicitor for the Australian Securities and Investments Commission. In 2012 Daniel was awarded an Australia Day Achievement Medallion in recognition of his contribution to the public service as part of the prospectuses team, which produced ASIC Regulatory Guide 228 - Prospectuses: Better Disclosure for Retail Investors.

Daniel was admitted to practise as a barrister and solicitor in the Supreme Court of South Australia in 2009. Daniel taught his first university course in 2006 tutoring postgraduate intermediate Financial Reporting (M) for the University of Adelaide, and in 2007, first started teaching undergraduate Commercial Law at Bradford College.

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Topic Information (主题信息)

Note: This course is in beta. An estimated schedule for topic uploads is provided below. Any multiple choice questions will also be uploaded later in semester.


Topic information is subject to change.


Sources of Australian Law (法律的来源)

Where does Australian law come from?

- The Australian Constitution (法律的来源)
- Australian legislation (澳大利亚宪法)
- Australian case law (澳大利亚案例法)


Agreement - Offer and Acceptance I (合意:要约和接受1)

A. What is a valid contract? (什么是有效要约?)

- Main contract elements (主要的合同要素)

- Other requirements (其他条件)

- What is an agreement? (什么是合意/协议?)


B. What is a valid offer? (什么是有效要约?)

- General principle (基本原则)

- Specific situations (not offers) (特殊情况(不是要约))

- Harvey v Facey [Casenote]

- Grainger & Son v Gough [Casenote]

- Shops: Fisher v Bell [Casenote]

- Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists [Casenote]

- Ads: Partridge v Crittenden [Casenote]

- Harris v Nickerson [Casenote]


Agreement - Offer and Acceptance II (合意:要约和接受2)

-      Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co [Casenote]


C. What happens to an offer? (对于要约下一步可以做什么?)

-      Revocation/withdrawal (撤回/撤销)

-      Revocation: Routledge v Grant [Casenote]

-      Goldsborough Mort v Quinn [Casenote]

-      Byrne & Co v Van Tienhoven & Co [Casenote]

-      Rejection (拒绝)

-      Counter-offer: Hyde v Wrench [Casenote

-      Stevenson Jacques & Co v McLean [Casenote]

-      Turner, Kempson & Co v Camm [Casenote]

-      Lapse (失效)

-      Termination by failure of condition precedent (未能达到前提条件而终止)


D. What is a valid acceptance? (什么是有效接受?)

-      General principles (基本原则)

-      “Subject to” clauses (“受限于”条款)

-      Auctions, invitations to tender (拍卖和招标)

-      Communicating acceptance (要约接受的传达)

-      Communication methods (通信方式)


Agreement: Offer and Acceptance III (合意:要约和接受3)

- Postal acceptance rule (邮寄接受原则)

- Instantaneous communication (瞬时通信)

- Masters v Cameron [Casenote]

- Felthouse v Bindley [Casenote]

- Empirnall Holdings Pty Ltd v Machon Paull Partners Pty Ltd [Casenote]


Intention to contract (合同意图)

-      General principle (基本原则)

-      Family, social or domestic arrangements (社会交往性、家庭内部的或自愿性质的合意)

-      Balfour v Balfour [Casenote]

-      Cohen v Cohen [Casenote]

-      Todd v Nicol [Casenote]

-      Wakeling v Ripley [Casenote]

-      Trevey v Grubb [Casenote]

-      Ermogenous v Greek Orthodox Community [Casenote]

-      Commercial agreements 

-      Rose and Frank Co v JR Crompton & Bros Ltd [Casenote]

-      Pirt Biotechnologies v Pirtferm Ltd [Casenote]

-      Masters v Cameron [Casenote]


Consideration I (约因、对价1)

- General principle (基本原则)

- Chappell & Co v Nestlé Co [Casenote]

- Examples of consideration (约因/对价的例子)

- Wigan v Edwards [Casenote]

- Dunton v Dunton [Casenote]

- Pinnel’s Case [Casenote]

- Past consideration (前合同约因)

- Roscorla v Thomas [Casenote]


Consideration II (约因、对价2)

- Existing legal duty (现有法律义务:基本原则)

- Stilk v Myrick [Casenote]

- Hartley v Ponsonby [Casenote]

- Foakes v Beer [Casenote]

- Practical benefit exception? (实际利益例外?)

- Williams v Roffey Brothers [Casenote]


Estoppel (禁反言/禁止翻供)

- Estoppel principles (禁反言/禁止翻供)

- Walton Stores v Maher [Casenote]


Express terms I (明示条款1)

- Signed documents (签字的文件有法律效应)

- L’Estrange v F Graucob Ltd [Casenote]

- Exceptions (例外)

- Curtis v Chemical Cleaning and Dyeing Co [Casenote]

- Le Mans Grand Prix v Iliadis [Casenote]

- Unsigned documents (未签名的文件)

- Parker v South Eastern Railway Co [Casenote]

- Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd [Casenote]

- Olley v Malborough Court Ltd [Casenote]

- Interfoto Picture Library v Stiletto [Casenote]


Express terms II (明示条款2)

- Oral terms: general principles (口头条款:基本原则)

- Oscar Chess Ltd v Williams [Casenote]

- Dick Bentley Productions Ltd v Harold Smith (Motors) Ltd [Casenote]

- Ross v Allis-Chalmers Australia Pty Ltd [Casenote]

- Oral terms in written contracts (书面合同中的口头条款)

- Van Den Esschert v Chappell [Casenote]

- Couchman v Hill [Casenote]

- Equuscorp Pty Ltd v Glengallen Investments Pty Ltd [Casenote]

- Collateral contracts (附属合同)

- De Lassalle v Guildford

- JJ Savage and Sons v Blakney

- Hoyts Pty Ltd v Spencer


Exemption clauses (免责条款)

  • -  General principles (免责条款)

  • -  Photo Production Ltd v Securicor Transport Ltd [Casenote]

  • -  Sydney City Council v West [Casenote]

  • -  Thomas National Transport (Melbourne) Pty Ltd v May & Baker Australia Pty

    Ltd [Casenote]

  • -  White v John Warwick & Co Ltd 


Termination (合同终止)

  • -  Categories of terms (conditions, intermediate terms, warranties) (条款分类)

  • -  Conditions (条件)

  • -  Associated Newspapers Ltd v Bancks [Casenote]

  • -  LG Schuler AG v Wickman Machine Tool Sales Ltd [Casenote]

  • -  Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co Ltd v Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd [Casenote]

  • -  Repudiation (拒绝履行合同)

  • -  Penola Trading Co Pty Ltd v Sunny Springs Pty Ltd [Casenote]

  • -  National Engineering Pty Ltd v Chilco Enterprises Pty Ltd [Casenote


Frustration (合同落空)

  • -  General principle (合同落空)

  • -  Davis Contractors Ltd v Fareham Urban District Council [Casenote]

  • -  Taylor v Caldwell [Casenote]

  • -  Codelfa Construction Pty Ltd v State Rail Authority of New South Wales [Casenote


Other remedies (其他补救/赔偿)

  • -  Damages (损坏赔偿)

  • -  Hadley v Baxendale [Casenote]

  • -  Baltic Shipping Co v Dillon [Casenote]

  • -  Injunctions (禁令)

  • -  Specific performance (具体履行/强制履行)

  • -  Dougan v Ley [Casenote]

  • -  Lumley v Wagner [Casenote]

  • -  Restitution (退款赔偿)

  • -  Pavey & Mathews Pty Ltd v Paul [Casenote]

  • -  Sumpter v Hedges [Casenote]

  • -  Rescission (取消、废除)


Misleading and deceptive conduct (误导及欺骗行为)

  • -  General prohibition: Section 18 ACL [Legislation] (诉讼中止令/普遍禁止:《澳大利亚商业法第18节》)

  • -  Method: is conduct misleading or deceptive? [with reference to Taco Company

    of Australia Inc v Taco Bell Pty Ltd] (方法:该行为是误导或欺骗性的吗?)

  • -  Future matters: s4 ACL [Legislation]  (未来事物)

  • - Examples (misleading or deceptive) (案例(误导或欺骗性)

    [Brief case summaries:
    1. Taco Company of Australia Inc v Taco Bell Pty Ltd
    2. Henjo Investments Pty Ltd v Collins Marrickville Pty Ltd
    3. Forwood Products Pty Ltd v Gibbett
    4. Bateman v Slatyer
    5. Accounting Systems 2000 Developments Pty Ltd v CCH Australia Limited 6. ACCC v UNJ Millenium Pty Ltd
    7. Gillette Australia Pty Ltd v Energizer Australia Pty Ltd

    -  Examples (not misleading or deceptive) (案例(非误导性或欺骗性的) [Brief case summaries:

    1. Parkdale Custom Built Furniture Pty Ltd v Puxu

    2. Macwilliam’s Wines Pty Ltd v McDonald’s System of Australia Pty Ltd

    3. Global Sportsman Pty Ltd v Mirror Newspapers Ltd

    4. Dalton v Lawson Hill Estate Pty Ltd]

    • -  Specific ACL prohibitions (具体规定/特别禁止)

    • -  Enforcement and remedies (强制执行与补救)


Unconscionable conduct I (不公平行为1)

  • -  Section 21 ACL [Legislation]  (第21节) 

  • -  Section 21 explained (第21节解析)

  • -  What is unconscionable? (什么是不公平?) [with reference to Hurley v McDonald’s Australia Ltd

    and ACCC v Lux Distributors]

  • -  Statutory guidance and requirements (法律指南和要求)

  • -  Section 22 explained (第22节解析)

  • -  Section 22: Unconscionability factors [Legislation] (第22节:不公平因素)

  • -  Examples of statutory “unconscionable conduct” (法定“不公平行为”的例子)

  • -  ACCC v Lux Distributors Pty Ltd [Brief case summary]

  • -  ACCC v Lux Pty Ltd [Brief case summary]

  • -  ASIC v National Exchange Pty Ltd [Brief case summary]

  • -  ACCC v Black on White Pty Ltd [Brief case summary


Unconscionable conduct II (不公平行为2)

  • -  Coggin v Telstar Finance Co [Brief case summary]

  • -  ACCC v Radio Rentals Ltd [Brief case summary]

  • -  Section 20 ACL – common law unconscionable conduct [Legislation] (第20节——习惯法不公平行为)

  • -  Section 20 explained (第20节解析)

  • -  Special disability (特殊障碍)

  • -  Special disability examples (特殊障碍例子)

  • -  Taking advantage of stronger bargaining position not automatically

    unconscionable [with reference to ACCC v CG Berbatis Holdings Pty Ltd] (利用较有利的议价位置不自动构成不公平)

  • -  Commercial Bank of Australia v Amadio [Casenote]

  • -  ACCC v CG Berbatis Holdings Pty Ltd [Casenote]

  • -  Blomley v Ryan [Brief case summary]

  • -  Remedies for unconscionable conduct (不公平行为的补救)


Negligence I (疏忽/过失 1)

- General principles (基本原则)

1. Duty of care (注意义务/审慎责任)

- Duty of care: general principles (注意义务/审慎责任——普遍原理)

-  Duty of care: established categories (审慎责任——确立类别)

-  Special considerations: Pure economic loss (特殊考量——纯经济损失)

-  Special considerations: Vicarious liability (特殊考量——替代责任/转承责任)

-  Case examples: Manufacturers, occupiers (案例-制造商,占用者) [Brief case summaries:

  1. Donoghue v Stevenson

  2. Grant v Australian Knitting Mills

  3. Australian Safeway Stores v Zaluzna

  4. Hackshaw v Shaw

  5. Club Italia (Geelong) Inc v Ritchie

  6. Modbury Triangle Shopping Centre v Anzil]

-  Professional advisers (negligent misstatement) (专业顾问(疏忽的错误陈述)) [Brief case summaries:

  1. Rogers v Whittaker

  2. Chappell v Hart]

-  Professional advisers (negligent misstatement): Pure economic loss (专业顾问(疏忽的错误陈述)——纯经济损失) [Brief case summaries:

  1. Hedley Byrne & Co Ltd v Heller & Partners Ltd

  2. Caparo Industries PLC v Dickman

  3. Esanda Finance v Peat Marwick

  4. Shaddock v Paramatta City Council]

-  Other pure economic loss (其他纯经济损失) [Brief case summaries:

  1. Johnson Tiles Pty Ltd v Esso Australia

  2. Caltex Oil v The Dredge Willemstad


Negligence II (疏忽/过失2)

2. Breach of duty (“negligence”) (违反审慎责任(“疏忽/过失”)) [with reference to Wyong Shire Council v Shirt]

-  SA legislation – Civil Liability Act 1936 (SA)  (南澳立法——《1936年(南澳)民事责任法案》) [Legislation]

-  Case examples: breach (案例-失职) [Brief case summaries:

  1. Nagle v Rottnest Island Authority
  2. O’Dwyer v Leo Buring Pty Ltd]
  • -  Case examples: Professional advisers (negligent misstatement)  (专业顾问(疏忽的错误陈述)) [Brief case summaries:

  1. Rogers v Whittaker
  2. Chappell v Hart]
  • -  Case examples: no breach [Brief case summaries:

  1. Romeo v Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory
  2. Graham Barclay Oysters Ltd v Ryan]

3. Causation [including reference to Civil Liability Act (SA)] (因果关系) [Legislation]

  1. Romeo v Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory

  2. Graham Barclay Oysters Ltd v Ryan]

4. Reasonable foreseeability (ie. ‘remoteness’) (合理可预见性)

  • -  Defences [including contributory negligence, voluntary assumption of risk] (辩护)

  • -  Case examples (案例 ): [Brief case summaries:

    1. March v Stramere Pty Ltd

    2. Moore v Woodforth]

  • -  SA legislation – Civil Liability Act 1936 (《1936年(南澳)民事责任法案》) [Legislation


Unsafe goods (不安全的商品)

  • -  Australian Consumer Law liability provisions (责任规定)[Legislation]

  • -  Recoverable kinds of losses (可恢复类损失)

  • -  Statutory meaning of ‘manufacturer’ (“生产者”的法律含义) [Legislation]

  • -  Other statutory elements explained (其他法律因素解析) [Legislation]

  • -  Safety defect (安全缺陷) [Legislation]

  • -  Case examples (案例) [Brief case summaries:

    1. Thomas v Southcorp Australia Ltd

    2. Glendale Chemical Products Pty Ltd v ACCC

  • -  Defences (辩护) [Legislation, Brief case summary: Graham Barclay Oysters v Ryan]

  • -  Other provisions (其他规定) [Legislation]

  • -  Consumer contracts (消费者合同) [Legislation]

  • -  Consumer guarantees (消费者保障) [Legislation]

  • -  Section 54 – acceptable quality (54节——可接受的质量) [Legislation]

  • -  Manufacturer’s liability (生产者对法律保障的违反行为负责) [Legislation]

  • -  Graham Barclay Oysters v Ryan [Brief case summary


Consumer guarantees (消费者保障)



Business structures (业务结构)



Agency law (代理法)



Property (财产法)



Intellectual property (知识产权)



Employment (劳工法)



Business and Commercial Law

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